Astronauts going to Mars will be exposed to radiation for many lifetimes.

Ionizing radiation exposure is one of the most serious health risks for astronauts on crewed missions to Mars.

"Exploring Mars will be humanity's ultimate adventure in the twenty-first century—it would be unfortunate if the mission is successful,

We must carefully estimate radiation exposure and investigate its overall impact on human health.

a computer simulation known as Geant4 with a human phantom model to calculate how radiation affects each organ of the human body

These include health effects on astronauts such as acute radiation syndrome and nervous system damage.

Acute radiation syndrome, also known as radiation sickness or radiation toxicity, is defined by the CDC 

The researchers discuss the physiological effects of ionising radiation, including the nervous, immune, and skeletal systems.

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